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Top 10 Universities of Pakistan

Pakistan’s Top 10 Universities.

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Top 10 Pakistani Universities

Bisouv, in association with House of Entremuse, processed 121 HEC recognized Pakistani universities that meet the following selection criteria:

  1. Being accredited, licensed and/or chartered by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan.
  2. Offering at least three-year undergraduate degrees and/or postgraduate degrees.
  3. Delivering courses predominantly in a traditional face-to-face, non-distance education format.

Bisouv’s Top 10 Universities Rankings aim is to provide a non-academic League Table of the top 10 universities in Pakistan on unbiased and valid web metrics.

MORE FROM THIS ISSUE: Blinding Justice and a Case of Uniforms

10 – Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad

Quad-i-Azam University

Quad-i-Azam University, Islamabad

BISOUV SCORE: 42

Founded as University of Islamabad in 1967, it was initially dedicated to the study of postgraduate education, but expanded through the reign of former dictator Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq to an interdisciplinary university offering undergraduate and postgraduate degrees.

Qauid-i-Azam University (QAU) has become the the largest varsity in the capital city Islamabad with a total enrollment exceeding 13 000 students (2015 data.) The beautiful 1700 acres campus is situated on the foothills of Margalla Hills and is one of Pakistan’s largest public universities.

The University is divided into four faculties and nine affiliated research institutes.

QAU is one of Pakistan’s highest rated universities. It has been consistently ranked among the top 700 varsities in the world by the QS World University Rankings while local publications ranked QAU among the top 120 universities in Asia in 2013. Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked QAU between 501-600 globally and among the top 120 in Asia in 2014.

9 – Bahria University, Islamabad

Top 10 Pakistani Universities

Bahria University, Islamabad

BISOUV SCORE: 46

Established by the Pakistan Navy in 2000, Bahria University (BU) is a semi-government university situated in the heart of Islamabad. It offers degrees in undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctoral studies. BU’s research programs are directed towards the development of engineering, philosophy, natural sciences, social sciences, and medical sciences. Majors include Maritime Studies, Psychology, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Law (British,) Social Sciences, Management Sciences, Computer Sciences, Engineering Sciences, and Health Sciences.

The university is one of the top institution of higher learning in the country and secured 23rd in among country’s top thirty and most notable universities in General category by the HEC in 2016. The University is a member of Association of Commonwealth Universities of the United Kingdom.

8 – University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

Top 10 Pakistani Universities

University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

BISOUV SCORE: 58

Founded as Punjab Agricultural College and Research Institute in 1906, it was the first major educational institution in undivided Punjab after Aitchison College, Lahore.

It was ranked fourth in the general category and first in the agriculture and veterinary sciences category by HEC in 2016. Internationally, it was ranked among the top 800 universities by QS World University Ranking in 2015.

Its high employability rate has made this institution highly reputable. The university also came among top 5 institutions of Pakistan in research power.

7 – Air University, Islamabad

Top 10 Pakistani Universities

Air University, Islamabad

BISOUV SCORE: 59

Established by the Pakistan Air Force in 2002, Air University is a semi-government university under Pakistan Air Force’s education command. It offers undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctoral studies and places great emphasis on engineering, business management, and social sciences. The university inaugurated its medical school in 2016.

Air University is ranked among Pakistan’s top ten engineering and technology universities by the HEC. It is affiliated with Pakistan Engineering Council as well. The university is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities of the United Kingdom.

6 – Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi

Top 10 Pakistani Universities

Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi

BISOUV SCORE: 60

Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology (GIK) is a private university in Topi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. GIK 400-acre campus has eight academic faculties focused mainly on sciences and engineering.

Founded by former President Ghulam Ishaq Khan in 1993, the university attracted great minds like Abdul Qadeer Khan, Shaukat Hameed Khan, and Asghar Qadir all of whom played a vital role in transforming the newly established university into one of Asia’s finest.

HEC ranks GIK among the top universities in Pakistan.

It’s worth mentioning that the university has a famous but healthy longstanding competition going on with the Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applies Sciences (PIEAS) ever since it was established.

5 – University of the Punjab, Lahore

Top 10 Pakistani Universities

University of the Punjab, Lahore

BISOUV SCORE: 61

University of the Punjab is the oldest public university in Pakistan. It was only the fourth university to be established under the British Raj in the Indian subcontinent; the first three universities were established in other parts of British India.

University of the Punjab is one of the largest varsities in Pakistan with over 30 000 students (2016 data.) It has a total of 13 faculties within which there are 63 academic departments, research centers, and institutes. There are two Novel Laureates among the university’s alumni and former staff.

HEC ranked University of the Punjab first among large-sized multiple faculty universities in 2012. It was also ranked among top 800 world universities by QS World University Rankings in 2015.

MORE FROM THIS ISSUE: Once a city of gardens, Lahore is now a concrete jungle

4 – CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore

Top 10 Universities of Pakistan

CMH Lahore Medical And Dental College, Lahore

BISOUV SCORE: 65

CMH Lahore Medical College and Institute of Dentistry (CMH) was inaugurated by the former dictator General Pervez Musharraf in 2006.

The college is affiliated with National University of Medical Sciences (NUMS) and is recognized by the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council. CMH is also included in AVICENNA Directory for medicine and International Medical Education Directory of FAIMER and ECFMG.

The college is under the administration of Pakistan Army.

Facilities include CMH Hospital, a 1000-bed Class A Hospital under the Pakistan Army, Army Cardiac Center, and Institute of Dentistry (IOD) Dental Clinics for General Public.

=3 – Institute of Business Administration, Karachi

Top 10 Pakistani Universities

Institute of Business Administration, Karachi

BISOUV SCORE: 69

Institute of Business Administration (IBA) was established as a business school by the government of Pakistan in 1955 with the help of USAID, Wharton School, and the University of Southern California. Many prominent American professors worked to develop the curriculum of the newly established school. In 1982, it became the first Pakistani institute to offer a four-year liberal arts undergraduate degree. In 2003, IBA was expanded from a purely graduate business school to an interdisciplinary university offering undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate degrees.

With a 75 000 sq. ft campus and student body of over 6 000, IBA is highly ranked by local and international educationalists. It is one of Pakistan’s most selective and highest ranked business school. It has collaborations with 15 institutions worldwide including Northwestern University, S.P. Jain Institute, Indian School of Business, and Babson College. IBA is also only one of two business schools in Pakistan to be certified by the South Asian Quality Assurance System

Its alumni include the incumbent President of Pakistan Mamnoon Hussain, former Prime Minister of Pakistan Shaukat Aziz, renowned economist Muhammad Uzair, former MNA Asad Umar, and business leader Quentin D’Silva.

=3 – Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore

Top 10 Pakistani Universities

Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore

BISOUV SCORE: 69

Founded by the patronage of the business-industrial community spearheaded by Syed Aarim in 1984, Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS) is one of the top universities in Asia. It was established as a graduate business school after taking in consideration special advice from Harvard Business School and a $10 million grant from USAID. It launched a liberal arts undergraduate school in 1994, a law (British law) school in 2004, an engineering school in 2008, and an education school in 2017.

LUMS has a 100 acres campus, a student body of over 4 000, and a faculty of 248 (three quarters of whom have doctoral degree(s).) Its business school is accredited by AACSB. It is only one of two business schools in Pakistan to be certified by the South Asian Quality Assurance System and is ranked as one of the top business schools in the country. The university is also a member of Association of Commonwealth Universities.

LUMS is ranked as the top varsity in Pakistan in the QS University Rankings for the year 2016, 111th in Asia, and among the top 700 in the world. It is also ranked by QS University Rankings as among the top 300 universities globally in business studies and among the top 400 universities globally in mathematics. Following a liberal arts curriculum, LUMS is one of Pakistan’s most expensive, selective, and progressive universities. LUMS counts several prominent Pakistani intellectuals and public figures among its alumni and current and former faculty including Umar Saif, Hina Rabbani Khar, Adil Najam, Arif Zaman, Amer Iqbal, Ayesha Jalal, Asad Abidi, Osama Siddique, and Pervez Hoodbhoy.

2 – National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad

Top 10 Pakistani Universities

National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad

BISOUV SCORE: 70

NUST was established in 1991 by merging military and civil educational resources. After its development, existing military schools and colleges became constituent colleges of NUST. The first college to be affiliated with NUST was MCS in 1991. In 1993, the university was granted a charter and CEME and MCE became part of the university. In December 1994 and November 1995, CAE and PNEC became constituents of NUST respectively.

As of 2016, NUST has over 15,000 full-time students enrolled and over 20 departments with over 1,280 academic faculty staff.

It is ranked by QS World Rankings as among the leading 50 universities under the age of 50, and is ranked by QS World Rankings among top 500 universities in the world. It is also ranked by QS World Rankings among top 300 in the world in Electring Engineering. The Times Higher Education Rankings ranks NUST among the top 100 universities from Emerging Economies, among top 120 in Asia, and among top 250 globally in the field of Electric Engineering. In 2016, it was ranked among the next 50 leading young universities globally by Times.

NUST is a member of Association of Commonwealth Universities, United Nations Academic Impact, and Talloires Network.

1 – Aga Khan University, Karachi

Top 10 Universities of Pakistan

Aga Khan University, Karachi

BISOUV SCORE: 72

Founded in 1983 by the Prince Aga Khan IV through the Aga Khan Development Network, Aga Khan University (AKU) is Pakistan’s top university in Bisouv’s opinion.

The university’s 65-acre campus includes a medical college and a teaching hospital. The university established the Institute for Educational Development of Pakistan in 1993, a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, in 2004, and a teaching hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in 2016. The university also established a campus in London dedicated to the study of Near East in 2004 and launched an examination board in 2003.

In 2015, the university established the Institute for Human Development funded by the CIDA and in 2016, the university launched Graduate School of Media and Communications and East African Institute. The university’s clinical laboratories in Karachi are the only in Pakistan to be accredited by the College of American Pathologists.

The university’s campus in Karachi is ranked among the top 185 universities in Asia and among the top 300 in the world in medicine by Quacquarelli Symonds. HEC ranks the university as the top medical school in Pakistan.

The university also runs of the world’s largest networks of Joint Commission accredited teaching hospitals with 14 hospitals in Pakistan, East Africa, and Afghanistan. In 2016, these hospitals treated over 1.75 million patients.

MORE FROM THIS ISSUE: Person of the Decade – Raheel Sharif

Opinion/Writings

Pakistan’s toxic relationship with mullahism

Many argue that mullahism is a school of thought. It maybe, but only in a world where schools encourage violence against those who beg to differ, those who follow another religion, and those who wear jeans.

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Pakistan’s toxic relationship with mullahism

There is no concept of priesthood in Islam. There is no criteria of attire or appearance in Islam. And there is no pass to use the name of God for political, social, or financial gains in Islam. How come, one wonders then, the mullah has crept into the very framework of the constitution of Pakistan, so much so, he has the country by her throat?

“Wear a mask if you have to, but mosques will stay open”

It shouldn’t come as a surprise that the country’s top clerics, holier-than-thou, have refused to close down mosques amid the spread of COVID-19, which has brought the world to her knees – infecting 620,000 and killing 28,000, but why hasn’t the government, one asks himself, rebuffed their imbecile idea?

Mullah school of thought

Many argue that mullahism is a school of thought. It maybe, but only in a world where schools encourage violence against those who beg to differ, those who follow another religion, and those who wear jeans. And a mullah, by definition, is a man who closes his eyes to every atrocity, oppression, and sin in the world except when it causes him discomfort. He is usually identified by his absolute lack of remorse, complete denial of logic, and blind following – not of God, but of those he thinks are closer to God because they wear a beard and abuse the government on live television.

The novel coronavirus

The novel coronavirus is highly contagious and spreads from person to person in close proximity. It has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization, which has also asked people to self-isolate in order to halt the spread of the coronavirus. In Pakistan, the coronavirus-related cases have jumped from 7 to 1,408 in mere 19 days and health experts have warned that the cases can top at least 20 million if strict measures aren’t put into place. Although the provincial governments have accelerated their efforts to tackle to the spread of the coronavirus, the center refuses to halt its populist stance.

Bogus party, selection of the most naive

It’s an open secret that Imran Khan could only win the premiership with the help of the invisible force, one of whose election tactics were to establish a bogus far-right political party with so many votes that it wouldn’t win any seats, but would be able to break a decisive section of votes, which would ultimately tilt of the polls in Khan’s Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf’s favor. The tactic worked and we have a puppet for a prime minister. The bogus party, of course, was Khadim Rizvi’s Tehreek-e-Labaik – a circus of mullahs and men alike, chanting the God’s name to open revolt when asked to.

The ‘intelligent’ Muslim world

The Muslim world, the one where there is intelligent life, has closed their mosques for congregational prayers in an attempt to halt the spread of the coronavirus. In Qatar, the mosques have changed the wordings of the call to prayer, in accordance with Islamic values and history, asking the faithful to pray at home. In Palestine, imams have invited doctors and health experts to give the Friday sermons so that they can help the masses by spreading awareness about the invisible enemy. And in Saudi Arabia, home to two of the holiest sites of Islam, the performance of Omra has been temporarily halted, the holy Ka’abah has been temporarily closed for Tawa’afs, the holy Prophet’s mosque has closed its door for the first time in a while, and it has been reported that the yearly Hajj may not happen.

Too many Khans is too many Khans

When a playboy-turned-politician comes into power through religious votes, there is nothing natural about his selection. Khan simply has too many faces to please and too many favors to repay for him to lead the country of this once-in-a-century pandemic. He cannot disappoint the opportunists from Karachi, he cannot disappoint the right or the left, and he cannot disappoint those in Rawalpindi. Khan, undoubtedly one of the most educated, striking, and honest statesman in the country’s history, has projected one too many fronts to belong to any.

On the other end, Chief Minister Murad Ali Shah is making all the headlines Khan should’ve making. Shah, one of Pakistan Peoples Party’s senior-most politicians, has made all the right decisions so far, so much so, he has pretty much saved the country from what could’ve one of its most horrible ends. Shah locked down the country overlooking Khan’s populist sentiments and then he empowered his security forces to enforce them, he made decisive, tough, and striking decisions and was immediately followed in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa – Khan’s strongholds, and most importantly, Shah refused to give one drop of consideration to the mullahs and closed down all mosques and madrasas indefinitely until the end of the pandemic.

Conclusion

All-in-all, if Khan is serious about preventing a blunder, a bloodbath, and a chaos of the highest level, he needs to abandon his alliance with the mullahs and needs to realize that this is not a time to bag votes. The mullahs need to let the reality cascade upon their holier-than-thou-selves and realize that no they are not immune to the novel coronavirus. And the people need to realize that God doesn’t help those who do not help themselves.

To conclude, I would like to narrate Al-Thirmidhi:

“Anas ibn Malik reported: A man sad, “O Messenger of Allah, should I tie my camel and trust in Allah, or should I leave her untied and trust in Allah?” The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Tie her and trust in Allah.””

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Opinion/Writings

Khan’s incompetence is going to cost us a country

Khan needs to realize that the time to act is now and no amount of Nathiagali walks is going to contain the novel coronavirus that has brought the country to a standstill.

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During his first national address concerning the novel coronavirus, unfortunately-Prime Minister of Pakistan Imran Khan stated that the COVID-19 virus, which has until now, infected 200,000 and killed over 8,000 people worldwide isn’t “serious enough” to lockdown the country.

In his national address, coming weeks late in the first place, Khan absolutely failed to convince the country of the government’s plans and strategies to tackle the novel coronavirus. His unruly, disruptive, and unlike-statesman smirks and expressions, once again, left only his sponsees in awe of him, so much so, the social media erupted in praising the one handsome prime minister this country has ever had. Khan deserves the praise, though, for only his visionary self could apprehend spending Rs42 million of taxpayers’ money for the constitution of a digital media wing at the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, the only responsibility of which is to defend the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government over the internet and on social media platforms.

As of Wednesday, Pakistan has recorded at least 245 cases of the highly contagious coronavirus – the highest number of confirmed cases in South Asia, compared with 147 in India, 44 in Sri Lanka, and 22 in Afghanistan. Furthermore, NayaDaur, a Pakistani media outlet, has reported that if the government continues doing the bare minimum, which it is, the cases may rise to over 80,000 by mid April.

In mainland China, the coronavirus has infected over 8,500 people and killed 3,248, in Italy, the coronavirus has infected over 35,00 people and killed 2,978, and in Spain, the coronavirus has infected over 17,000 and killed 767. What Khan needs to understand is that Italy, China, and Spain boast some of the world’s best healthcare systems, furthermore, they are top-tier world economies while Pakistan doesn’t even have enough protective kits to equip their doctors with. Khan also needs to understand that the novel coronavirus is highly contagious and that the new cases will rise exponentially, which means, if simply put, that there will be a need for a lot of ICU beds and ventilators that the country doesn’t have. In figures, Pakistan has 0.6 ICU beds available for 1,000 people while China, Italy, and Spain have 4.2, 3.4, and 3.0 beds per 1,000 people respectively. What Khan needs to understand is that if the government doesn’t take decisive measures now, it will be too late.

Khan refuses to halt his populist stance, so much so, he refuses to visit anywhere without having at least a dozen photographers following him. In a video that Khan posted on his social media profiles, he can be seen observing the state of a quarantine center in DG Khan inquiring about the patients’ health, to which, of course, the patients, or so, answer in all-praises for the management – in this case the PTI’s Punjab government. The patients sing Khan’s name and throw their support behind him to conclude what seemed like a textbook scripted PR stunt. But God works in mysterious ways for the points that the video had scored the Punjab government were quickly balanced out by Sardar Usman Buzdar who, shockingly, is also the ‘Chief Minister’ of the province. According to a Pakistani media outlet Dawn, which also happens to be the country’s oldest and most reliable English newspaper, Buzdar asked such an innocent question that it rocked, rather sunk, the very idea of him leading the fight against the coronavirus. Dawn reported the incident as follows:

“A few days ago Punjab Chief Minister Usman Buzdar received a detailed briefing on coronavirus from relevant experts and officials. The purpose was to provide him all the information he required as the chief executive of the largest province, so he could make the right decisions. At the end of the briefing, the chief minister asked a question innocently: ”Yeh corona kaat-ta kaisay hai?” (how does this corona bite?)”

On the other side of the country, Chief Minister Sindh Murad Ali Shah is leading the country’s fight against the vicious virus. Shah, 57, holds two masters degrees from Stanford University and is concluded in the list of Pakistan Peoples Party’s (PPP) most senior politicians and figures. Shah’s plan is simple: halt the spread of the coronavirus as soon as possible, quarantine all those showing severe symptoms, provide for the families of those quarantined, and isolate and test all those returning home from countries with the most coronavirus cases. To implement his plan, Shah ordered the closure of all educational institutions when the very first coronavirus case was confirmed in Sindh. Later, he ordered to shut down all public monuments, parks, offices, restaurants, beaches, and shopping malls. He set up a 10,000-bed hospital in Karachi, a 2000-bed hospital in Sukker, and isolation centers in all districts of Sindh. Furthermore, he has been thorough in reporting cases, spreading awareness, and containing panic by holding press conferences almost every other day. Shah’s plan has worked out so well that even the World Health Organization (WHO) has applauded his efforts calling his work “the best after (that of) China’s.”

Khan’s team lacks greatly what Shah’s team is doing so wonderfully well, but he still refuses to acknowledge it, so much so, not once has he passed any positive comments Shah’s way nor is he committed to consider Shah’s many suggestions any seriously than he would take anyone’s not wearing boots to go with their suits. Khan is stubborn, weak, and controlled by one too many fronts and so, it is our duty, as citizens of this great country, to question his policies, grudges, politics, and decisions for we have voted him into the office he’s not working hard enough to keep. It is our duty as brothers, sisters, fathers, mothers, sons, and daughters to make sure our loved ones are taken care of in this testing time. And it is our duty as daily workers, housewives, doctors, and students to fight for our right of survival.

Khan needs to realize that he is the prime minister of not only Punjab and Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, but also of Sindh, Balochistan, Kashmir, and Gilgil-Baltistan. Khan needs to realize that the country can only survive this pandemic if it projects a common front, defended equally by all parties of all provinces. And Khan needs to realize that the time to act is now and no amount of Nathiagali walks is going to contain the novel coronavirus that has brought the country to a standstill.

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Opinion/Writings

Person of the Decade – Raheel Sharif

Bisouv, in its first public issue, salutes the many achievements of the former Chief of Army Staff Raheel Sharif.

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Raheel Sharif

Through storms of political biases, domestic and foreign insurgencies, and financial and social emergencies, Pakistan has emerged – every time a little stronger. And the people responsible for putting the country in these desperate of situations are plenty and the people responsible for taking the country out of them are, but a few. Bisouv, in its first ever public issue, salutes the latter and in this article, celebrates one of the few – Raheel Sharif.

Currently serving as the first Commander-in-Chief of the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition, a 39-nation alliance of Muslim countries headquartered in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Raheel Sharif, a former four-star general and Chief of Army Staff (COAS) is arguably the most popular COAS in Pakistan’s history. Born in a country, in which to this day all shots are called, directly or in a de-facto martial law-style, by the military, Raheel Sharif was different – a general who ‘could,’ but never did.

MORE FROM THIS WEEK’S ISSUE: Blinding Justice and a Case of Uniforms

Under his command, the Pakistan Army carried out fierce anti-terrorism operations in North Waziristan in the Operation Zarb-e-Azb, which not only stabilized the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA,) but built the foundation for the government of Pakistan to merge the deprived province into Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa (KP.) Sharif was responsible for expanding the role of paramilitaries, mainly Pakistan Rangers, in the coastal city of Karachi – a move that saw an exceptional decrease in the crime rate in the city and later pulled out the city’s name out of the ‘Most Dangerous Cities in the World’ list. Unlike his predecessors, Sharif wholeheartedly supported the democratically elected government in the deprived, and the largest province of Pakistan, Balochistan and buried the hatred that former dictator Musharraf first initiated in 2006. At the request of the Chinese government and after the Pakistan government’s approval, Sharif created a new brigade-level military unit to help protect and secure the many projects under the Pakistan-China Economic Corridor (CPEC.) Sharif also helped develop Pakistan’s indigenous defence industry, which resulted in the savings of more than $1.14 billion, over a year and half time period

In other feats, under Raheel Sharif, the Pakistan Army operated strictly under its constituted jurisdiction and left foreign, social, and economic policies to the democratically elected civilian government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. Under his tenure, Pakistan Army carried out first ever joint military exercises with Russia and supported the government deepen relations with China.

MORE FROM THIS ISSUE: Once a city of gardens, Lahore is now a concrete jungle

Reportedy, Sharif also thwarted a coup attempt in 2014. As disclosed by former United States ambassador to Pakistan Richard Olsen, former head of Pakistan Intelligence Service ISI Zahir-ul-Islam was mobilizing for a coup in September of 2014 during Imran Khan’s infamous Islamabad protest that lasted for months.

“We received information that Zahir-ul-Islam, the DG ISI, was mobilizing for a coup in September of 2014 [during Khan’s protest in Islamabad.] [Army Chief] Raheel [Sharif] blocked it by, in effect, removing Zahir, by announcing his successor,” Olson was quoted in the recently launched book ‘The Battle For Pakistan, The Bitter US Friendship and a Tough Neighborhood’ by Shuja Nawaz in its chapter titling, Mil-to-Mil Relations: Do More. “[Zahir] was talking to the corps commanders and was talking to likeminded army officers… He was prepared to do it and had the chief [Raheel Sharif] been willing, even tacitly, it would have happened. But the chief was not willing, so it didn’t happen.”

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